please answer the question by question short answer I don’t need more 500 words

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Question 1 Consequences of Telomere loss in a Chromosome Telomeres protect genetic codes from degradation as cells replicate. When cells reproduce, some chromosomes tend to shorten. For example, the lining of the stomach in a grown adult, only some different tissues continue to reproduce cells. Age, therefore, causes the telomere and genetic material to shorten. When this happens regularly, new cells lack genes, and it might have adverse effects since those cells have a few of the genes needed to survive. Some consequences occur when a chromosome loses its telomere. The loss of one telomere can contribute to various chromosome alterations usually linked with human cancer. This will affect not only that single telomere but also other chromosomes. Also, factors leading to telomere loss are hence likely to have a significant role in promoting the karyotype evolution linked with human cancer. Question 2 Advantages of Crossing Over to Reproduction Crossing over is an important process as it is the basis of reproduction and without it, reproduction cannot occur efficiently; first, it helps to restore a diploid chromosomal constitution in a species at fertilization. The nuclei of the two gametes fuse (from the male and the female) and produce a zygote, which has a fixed number of chromosomes for each species during fertilization. In addition, it creates opportunities for new combinations of genes to occur in the gametes cells leading to genetic differences in the offspring formed by the fusion of gametes. Finally, it is involved in gamete formation; sex cells contain half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell in organisms during sexual reproduction Question

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