C3, C4, and CAM Plants

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Name: Instructor: Course: Date: C3, C4 and CAM Plants Introduction Plants can be classified as c3, c4 or cam plants with respect to how they combat photorespiration. The failure of certain plants to adapt towards eliminating photorespiration means that the plant may not survive certain conditions. On the other hand, plants that have mechanisms to reduce photorespiration may require higher ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) energy for the processes to take place. These classifications are therefore important in the determination of crop adaptability to different environments and their food yields for economic productivity. C3 plants C3 plants are those that do not have any photosynthetic mechanism to reduce photorespiration. Standard mechanism of carbon fixation by rubisco enzymes of the Calvin cycle occurs in the mesophyll cell i.e. spongy tissue in the middle of the leaf. Most species of the earth including all trees, rice, wheat, and soybeans are in the C3 category. C3 crops are best abundant to cool wet environments because of their inability to counter photorespiration and consequent higher water requirements. C4 plants In the C4 category of plants, photorespiration effect is reduced through separation of the Calvin cycle and the light-dependent reactions. About 3% of all vascular plants which include sugarcane, crabgrass and corn are C4 plants. C4 plants do well in hotter sunny environments rather than cooler conditions. This is because the benefit of reduced photorespiration is mostly realized in hotter conditions. Under hot conditions, the ATP cost of moving CO2 from the mesophyll cell to the bundle sheath cell is high. The water consumption of a C4 type

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