Internal and External Validity. Name: Institution: Question 1 One threat to the statistical conclusion validity would be the random heterogeneity of respondents. The type of people that are sampled in any study causes this. The main reason is that they make it harder to see the relationship between two variables. If the group of respondents is colossal as was the case in the study that was conducted by Burgette and Jackson they are likely to vary the measures and observations. Although in most cases this variety is always related to the phenomena that are being studied, part of it is more likely to comprise of the individual differences that do not relate to the variables that are under investigation. It is a plausible threat because the researchers stated the number of the participants and put the figure at 1382 CITATION Bur09 l 1033 (Burgette & Magun-Jackson, 2009). Question 2 The researchers sought to find out the effect of a freshman orientation course on the persistence of students at a college. For any study that is conducted, there is always a risk of the test subjects or respondents dropping out of the test. Either the black or white students could have dropped out for a variety of reasons. Furthermore, such a threat, although not mentioned by the researcher, might occur at any point during the study. Such a threat is referred to as attrition and is likely to affect the internal validity of the survey. Question 3 Before conducting the test, the researchers had formulated their hypothesis. It was a well-established fact obtained from previous studies and conducted researches that the orientation course had no effect on students beyond the second year.