Hypertension and Renal Failure

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Hypertension and Renal Failure Background Hypertension or sustained elevated blood pressure is a major and an independent risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases (Mennuni et al., 2013). Almost 72 million U.S. citizens are affected with different stages of hypertension. Hypertension is also the 2nd leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the U.S. Almost 30% incidences of ESRD are attributed to a hypertensive crisis (Mennuni et al., 2013). The prevalence of ESRD has dramatically increased over the past two decades. Hypertension is considered both a cause and a consequence of ESRD. ESRD represents end organ failure of the kidneys (Mennuni et al., 2013). Studies indicate that prevalence of hypertension among patients undergoing hemodialysis is as high as 90%. Patients suffering from a pre-existing renal disease or diabetes mellitus are predisposed to the risk of hypertension mediated renal failure (Shankland, 2006). Hypertension mediated renal failure is also associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, and cognitive dysfunction. Hence, hypertension mediated renal failure is associated with various complications and comorbidity. Therefore, it is extremely essential for preventing the mortality and morbidity associated with hypertension (Mennuni et al., 2013). Appropriate and aggressive control of hypertension is recommended by different guidelines for preventing the risk of ESRD. Hypertension mediated renal failure is broadly classified as benign and malignant nephrosclerosis (Fofi, Pecci &Galliani, 2001).The present article focuses on the etiology of renal failure as a consequence of uncontrolled blood pressure. The etiology of

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