foodborne illness

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Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Foodborne Illness Introduction Foodborne disease is caused by consumption of foods and drinks that have been polluted by pathogens, harmful toxins, and chemicals (Scallan et al. 66). However, a great variety of these diseases is commonly acquired through consuming water and food infested with viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Some of these diseases include Hepatitis A, Toxoplasmosis, Vibrio infection, Shigellosis, and Listeriosis. Listeriosis Listeriosis is a bacteriological disease brought about by Listeria Monocytogenes. In some cases, it is as a result of L. grayi and L. ivanovii. Listeria is known to cause bacteremia to people with weak immunity, pregnant women and elderly (Scholing et al. 217). Additionally, infections to the central nervous system (cerebritis, brain abscess, and meningitis) are also common. Between 2004 and 2005, cases of Listeriosis in the United States were estimated at 2.5 – 3 per a million population; with pregnant women accounting for up to 30% of all cases. The occurrence of Listeriosis disease in U.S. had dropped by about 38% in the year 2003. However, reports from Centre for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that deaths due to these illnesses continue to occur. Listeria is primarily transmitted through oral ingestion and after consumption of contaminated food products. The bacteria cause systemic infection after penetrating the intestinal tract and later resulting into to four distinct syndromes. They include neonatal infection, infection in pregnancy, gastroenteritis, and infection of the central nervous system (Scholing et al. 216). In neonatal infection, two forms exist, and they

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