alternatives to whole blood transfusion

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Alternatives to Blood Transfusion Name of the Student Professor’s Name Abstract Blood transfusion has been recognized as a lifesaving intervention. However, there are different risks and adverse reactions that limit the use of whole blood transfusion. There are various complications associated with whole blood transfusion. These complications are either infectious or non-infectious. Transfusion-related infections are less pronounced than non-infectious complications. Indications for RBC transfusion are symptomatic anemia, sickle cell anemia and severe blood loss (representing greater than 30% of total blood volume). Fresh-frozen plasma is implicated for reversing the anticoagulant effects. On the other hand, platelet transfusion is indicated for preventing hemorrhage in patients suffering from thrombocytopenia. One of the major risks of transfusing fresh-frozen plasma is Transfusion Associated lung injury (TRALI). TRALI is featured by acute hypoxia and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, which results within 6 hours of fresh-frozen plasma transfusion. Most patients suffering from TRALI recover within three days (with ventilator support, while 5% - 25% patients suffer from fatal outcomes. Hence, use of blood substitutes is mandated for addressing the needs of whole blood transfusion. Growth factors like ESAs (Epoetin-alpha and Darbepoetin-alpha) and CSFs (Filgrastim and Pefilgrastrim) are effective in reducing the need for whole blood transfusion and for managing neutropenia in elder ovarian cancer patients. Iron –dextran and iron sucrose infusion are effective in alleviating the need for blood transfusion in elective and non-elective orthopedic surgeries. Combined

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