Enzyme Essay Examples

enzyme known as pepsin is responsible their breakdown. The enzyme breaks the peptide bond that holds the protein molecule into polypeptides. These polypeptides then move to the ileum where they are broken down by the pancreatic enzyme into smaller units known as peptides (Sherwood, 2015). The enzymes continue breaking down the peptides into amino acids, which are absorbed into the bloodstream. Plant protein sources are different from those of animals and hence there are some differences in their absorption. This is because animal proteins are the same as proteins that are found in the body and therefore they are absorbed more easily as compared to plants. However, when plant proteins have the same...

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enzyme assay, lung monitoring, heart monitoring, biopsy, and electromyography. Genetic testing Since muscular dystrophy is as a result of genetic mutations, genetic tests can be undertaken to screen for changes in the dystrophin gene. Enzyme assay Creatine kinase is an enzyme produced by damaged muscles. A rise in the levels of Creatine Kinase without any types of muscle damage can be a good indicator of muscular dystrophy (Newman, 2017). Lung monitoring Checking for proper lung function gives additional proof to the possible absence or existence of muscular dystrophy. Heart monitoring The use of echocardiograms and electrocardiography can be used to obtain changes in the...

enzyme deficiency. This is whereby there is a lack of digestion and absorption of lactose within the small intestine. Since it has been properly documented that most of the individuals suffer from primary hypolactasia below the age of 20, this research introspect was conducted to convey evidence that hypolactasia could also be found in individuals above the age of 20. The test subjects were to be the age above 20 to obtain a unique and relevant result for current and future referencing. It is there true to state that this research was, in essence, trying to close a scientific gap that was not yet revealed by other scientists during research. Methodology used in the Research At first, the research was...

enzyme (Arsl) which converts toxic methylarsenite (III) into inorganic arsenite. An Arsl ortholog, TcArsl , have been recently isolated from the thermophilic bacteria Thermonospora curvata. The enzyme binds with methylarsenite by a pair of cysteine residues in its active site. The structure-function relationships of the enzyme were elucidated after appropriate purification and crystallization. The structure –function relationships indicated a loop-gating mechanism for controlling the catalytic reactions. TcArsl acts by cleaving the C-As bond of methylarsenite. The structure of the enzyme was resolved in both apo form and by using Ni(II), Co(II) or Fe(II) as prosthetic groups. Future studies should...

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Cell Biology

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Enzymes break glucose into two molecules of pyruvate which is also called pyruvic acid. During this breaking down, two molecules of ATP are also produced. The final product of pyruvate can be used in anaerobic respiration if oxygen is absent or in aerobic respiration if it is present. Citric acid cycle finishes breakdown of carbon dioxide resulting in little volumes of ATP in addition to giving out of electrons. It achieves this by getting acetyl CoA, which is gotten from glucose, arrests its bond energy in the nature of ATP molecules together with NADH and FADH2. In electron transport, energy so far produced in the form of ADP and inorganic phosphate is converted to ATP by the chain transport of the...

Immunology

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Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA is an immunological technique for quantifying antigen-antibody reactions. ELISA is also used for identifying an unknown antigen. Hence, ELISA may be used for both qualitative and quantitative assays. Antigens react with antibodies either in vitro or in vivo. Antigens react with antibodies through epitope -paratope interactions. The strength of antigen-antibody reactions is dependent upon affinity and avidity of the specific antigen towards a specific antibody. ELISA is a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay for detecting an antigen in a wet sample. It is used as a popular diagnostic test for detecting various molecular markers of different diseases. In this...

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Enzymes and enzymatic reactions Q1. The primary function of enzymes in the human body is to increase the rate at which a given biological reaction takes place. There are many different types of enzymes produced in the human body, and all catalyze a particular reaction i.e. enzymes work on specific substrates. They are found in body fluids including blood, saliva, and digestive juices. Some of the reactions that enzymes catalyze are digestion (enzyme amylase increases the rate at which starch is broken down to maltose) and blood clotting (enzyme thrombin increases the rate of clotting) (Frey and Hegeman). Q2. The enzyme amylase is produced by the salivary glands (salivary amylase) and in the pancreas...

enzymes that speed up rates of biochemical reactions so as to provide efficiency in making available of the said nutrients. These enzymes operate efficiently under optimum conditions in which the intracellular environments provide such as the pH and the temperature of the environment in which the cells are found, among others. When these conditions are inhibited, or otherwise interfered with, several aspects of these enzymes are altered in ways that make the said enzymes non-functional. An experiment is carried out in a laboratory simulating the human cell to understand further the consequences of changing one of these cellular environmental conditions (temperature) affecting the physical; hence the...

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Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is an assay procedure which is created for checking and quantifying substances like the proteins, peptides, hormones, and antibodies. There are many forms of ELISA which make the ELISA protocol to have few variations. The different types of ELISA protocol include; sandwich, direct, elispot, indirect and competitive ELISA protocol. However, the major ELISA protocol and process are similar. All in all, the ELISA protocol involves three majors steps; plate preparation, assay protocol, and analysis of results. Plate Preparation This process involves diluting the extracted antibody to the working samples in the plates. Afterward, you should cover a 96-well microplate...