Disorders of Renal Function

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Disorders of Renal Function Student’s Name Student ID Professor’s Name Date of Submission Question 1 Renal calculi occur when the urine is extremely saturated with salts and minerals such as calcium oxalate, struvite, uric acid as well as cystine. The majority of these stones have calcium. Renal calculi vary in size from small to large ones. They can remain in the location they were formed or move down the urinary tract creating symptoms all the way. Research shows that the primary factor intricate in the development of a stone may be the existence of nanobacteria that form calcium phosphate shell. The formation of renal stones is caused by the amplified urinary supersaturation which occurs due to the following development of crystalline particles. Crystallization of urine occurs due to the process of supersaturation. There are various crystalline components of urinary tract stone. They include calcium, oxalate, cysteine, purines, calcium phosphate or bacterial related. The mechanism of development of crystalline particles in the urine is centered on the thermodynamic state of the urine chemistry. The natural development of urine chemistry leading to stone development is urine saturation, urine supersaturation, crystal nucleation, aggregation, the retaining of crystals by the urothelium and the constant progression of the stone on the retained crystals. Supersaturation occurs when the absorption of salt components rises further than the saturation level. The solution is termed to be thermodynamically unstable. Supersaturation leads to nucleation, which is a process that is controlled by the thermodynamic free energy of the solution. The process of nucleation

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